Caucasian languages - a group of about forty languages native to the Caucasus region. Spoken in the Northern Caucasia, Transcaucasia and Turkey. Small groups of speakers of Caucasian languages also live in Syria, Iran and other countries of the Near East.

Caucasian languages native to Russia include:

Abkhaz-Adyge languages

Dagestanian languages

  • Aghul
  • Akhvakh
  • Andi
  • Archi
  • Avar
  • Bagvalal
  • Bezhta
  • Botlikh
  • Chamalal
  • Dargi
  • Dido
  • Ghodoberi
  • Hinukh
  • Hunzib
  • Karata
  • Khvarshi
  • Lak
  • Lezgi
  • Rutul
  • Tabasaran
  • Tindi
  • Tsakhur

Nakh languages

The following Caucasian languages are also spoken in Russia:

  • Abkhaz
  • Georgian
  • Udin

Among the Caucasian languages, only Georgian has ancient literary traditions. Udin has apparently also been a written language in the past. Beginning from the late Middle Ages there were attempts to use the Arab script for writing in a number of Caucasian languages. After the revolution, literary languages were created for Abaza, Adyghe, Avar, Chechen, Dargi, Ingush, Kabardin (Circassian), Lak, Lezghian, and Tabasaran - first on the basis of the Arab and Latin, from the late 1930's - Russian script. During the last years attempts have been made to create writing systems for Aghul, Andi, Bezhta, Dido, Rutul and Tsakhur.


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